Frequently Asked Questions
Graphene is a one-atom-thick layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal pattern.1
According to the International Organization for Standards (ISO), graphene refers to a single plane of sp2 carbon-bonded atoms in a hexagonal honeycomb crystal lattice.
In addition, the term “graphene” can be applied to material that is up to, and including, 10 layers of carbon and includes graphene-related materials, such as graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, functionalized graphene and graphene quantum dots.
Graphene is considered a “super material” as it is a diverse material with several attractive properties; it is stronger than steel, harder than a diamond, more conductive than copper, with better electron mobility than silicon, making it the future of technology.
The demand for graphene is currently valued at US$90M and it is projected to reach US$2.5B by 2028.
Graphene is the same basic material that is found in ordinary pencil lead.
As a universal caveat, precautions should be taken handling ANY nano-material when in a dry, powder form. The greatest exposure risk with nanomaterials involves potential inhalation, which can be managed with operational controls and the proper use of personal protective equipment.
However, once graphene has been added to a liquid or has been embedded in a host material, it is quite safe to handle and provides no risk in dermal contact. We recommend that companies which wish to use graphene work with a qualified supplier to ensure graphene is safely applied.
For more information on the use of graphene and use in human contact, please refer to this paper (Link to GC FAQ sheet) https://www.thegraphenecouncil.org/page/FAQs.
Graphene production, distribution and use is regulated by each country’s regulatory agencies. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States is the controlling agency and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) is the governing legislation.
In Europe, the agency is the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and the governing legislation is the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals Act (REACH).
Specific forms of graphene have received regulatory approval in the U.S., Europe, U.K., Canada, Australia and additional jurisdictions.
There are a number of international standards for graphene and related 2D advanced materials that are described below.
In addition, the Graphene Classification Framework (GCF) was created by more than 100 subject matter experts under the direction of the Graphene Council. The GCF is now being developed into an official ISO standard and is comprised of five key elements:
- List of the key graphene material characteristics relevant for commercial application.
- The standardized or preferred best practice methods of testing for each characteristic.
- A range of expected measurement values for each characteristic for benchmarking.
- Standardized syntax to consistently describe different types and forms of graphene.
- A standardized Technical Data Sheet (TDS) template so all companies report the same minimum amount and type of information about their materials.
The following list of standards for graphene and related 2D materials is not exhaustive. There are more than a dozen new standards that are currently making their way through the international standardization working groups. The Graphene Council is actively providing input and if you would would like to get involved, we invite you to join our Standards Task Force.
- ISO/TS 80004-13:2017: Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary — Part 13: Graphene and related 2D materials. This standard provides definitions and terminology related to graphene and other 2D materials.
- ISO/TS 21356:2020: Nanotechnologies — Graphene for electrochemical applications — Specification of characteristics and measurement methods.
This standard specifies the characteristics of graphene used for electrochemical applications and measurement methods to assess those characteristics.
- ISO/TS 21357:2019: Nanotechnologies — Method to estimate the surface area of graphene materials. This standard provides a method to estimate the specific surface area of graphene materials using nitrogen absorption.
- ISO 10808:2010: Nanotechnologies — Characterization of nanoparticles in inhalation exposure chambers for inhalation toxicity testing. While this standard is not specific to graphene, it is applicable to nanoparticles, including those containing graphene, when used in inhalation toxicity testing.
- IEC/PAS 62660-3: Graphene for batteries — Part 3: Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for characterizing graphene for lithium-ion batteries. This standard focuses on the use of EIS to characterize graphene used in lithium-ion batteries.
- ASTM E3074-17: Standard Test Method for Determination of Graphene in Powder by Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). This ASTM International standard specifies a method for quantifying the graphene content in graphene powder using thermal gravimetric analysis.
- ASTM D8289-20: Standard Guide for Bulk Electrical Conductivity of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene. Although it mentions carbon nanotubes, as well, this standard can be applied to assess the bulk electrical conductivity of graphene materials.
The Verified Graphene Producer Program is the only fully in-person inspection of graphene and related 2D materials production facilities and is also applicable for graphene-enhanced products, as well as for companies that specialize in the functionalization of 2D materials.
Our experts will visit production facilities to monitor the entire process, from raw material intake until the product is shipped. We evaluate quality control processes
, and health and safety practices, and we verify production methods and capacity claims.
We also will audit a sample of the material, which is then fully tested and characterized to confirm that the verified company can produce what it claims to produce.
The Verified Graphene Producer, Verified Graphene Product and Verified Functionalized Graphene programs help to validate the supply chain so customers have confidence they are working with a qualified producer and supplier.
HydroGraph was founded in 2017 to commercialize green, cost-effective manufacturing of graphene and other strategic materials
HydroGraph’s patented “Hyperion System” produces the purest (99.8% pure carbon), blackest graphene, with the lowest environmental footprint, allowing us to deploy our technology virtually anywhere. We are the only graphene producer in the Americas to be certified by the Graphene Council.
HydroGraph’s has one of the highest product margins in the market because we:
• Produce the highest quality graphene in the market (a high value to price ratio)
• Consume minimal energy, no solvents or emissions
• Use readily available inputs (i.e. gases), generating the lowest CAPEX requirement in the industry
HydroGraph’s produces the purest (99.8% pure carbon), blackest graphene, with the lowest environmental footprint. We use minimal energy, no solvents or emissions, and we use widely available gases – acetylene and oxygen – as feedstock generating net zero emissions.
Hydrograph currently holds one patent for our fractal graphene production technology, which is used in energy storage, lubricant, resin, speciality chemical and coating applications. We also have multiple patent applications filed and pending.
HydroGraph’s regulatory filings can be accessed HERE.
You can sign up for HydroGraph’s email list HERE.
If you are a current shareholder and have questions regarding your holdings or if there are account changes to be made (mailing address, account name, shareholder document requests), please contact HydroGraph’s transfer agent:
Endeavour Trust Corporation
Suite 702 – 777 Hornby Street
Tel : 604-559-8880
You can contact HydroGraph’s CFO Bob Wowk with investor questions at [email protected] .